Recovered cost invoices: can they still be posted?

26/01/2022

Even in the best organised office something may get misplaced, documents are sent after a deadline or the post office may experience some logistical issues. Do not panic when you suddenly discover an invoice with an archived date. You still have a chance to include it in the operating costs.

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Image author:Towfiqu barbhuiya, source: unsplash.com

Have you found an invoice that is a few months old; was it submitted too late by a vendor or was it overlooked when you were posting accounting documents? You can post it and settle tax liability in accordance with following rules:


Income tax - direct costs versus indirect costs

Pursuant to Article 22, paragraph 6b, of the Personal Income Tax Act, when as a taxpayer you settle according to your income and expenditure accounting, the invoice can be posted on the date of issue of the invoice or at later date, but by no later than the end of the tax year.

Check: → What expenses are deductible for a self-employed person?

If you settle costs according to a simplified method, the costs should be posted at the time they are incurred (invoice date) without separating them into direct or indirect costs.
If you settle costs on an accrual basis, then you have until the end of the fiscal year to post the costs.  In that case you should divide the costs as these relate to generated revenues: i.e. Into direct and indirect costs. Direct costs, e.g. the purchase of merchandise or subcontracting services, should be posted in the same year during which the revenues were generated. Indirect costs, e.g. leasing costs or office rental costs, should be posted on the date on which they are incurred or on the date of issue of the cost invoice. In the latter case, if the period is longer than a tax year, the costs should be divided pro rata between the first and second years.

Example:

At the beginning of January 2022, Anna comes across an invoice for fuel from September 2021. As she was just in the process of preparing documents for December 2021 to be sent to and settled by the accounting firm, it was her last chance to include this invoice in the envelope with these documents.


VAT - three settlement periods

Pursuant to Article 86, paragraph 10, of the Value Added Tax Act, you have the right to deduct VAT for the period during which the tax liability arose for a given transaction, but no earlier than the period during which the VAT invoice was received. In the case of a recovered or omitted invoice, you can deduct VAT in one of three subsequent settlement periods. If, as a VAT taxpayer you settle monthly, you can deduct VAT over the  three subsequent months and if you settle quarterly, you can deduct VAT for three consecutive quarters (counting the quarter during which the purchase was made as first one).

It should be stressed that the settlement of a given cost depends on the date the invoice was actually received by you. If you fail to deduct VAT during one of these aforementioned settlement periods, you can make that deduction at a later date in the form of JPK V7 adjustment. You can make such an adjustment within a maximum of five years, counting from the beginning of the year during which the right to deduct VAT arose.

Example

Barbara is VAT taxpayer and settles tax quarterly. She received an invoice from a subcontractor in May 2021 and paid it straight away. Unfortunately, the invoice was lost while moving offices. It was found in September 2021. Therefore, Barbara was able to post the invoice in the third or fourth quarter of 2021.


Recovered cost invoice – how should it be posted in the income and expenditure account?

If you keep an income and expenditure account, then you should post the recovered invoice in accordance with its issue date where the settlement period has not yet expired. If you came across it after the closure of the period, then you can post it in the following month of the same fiscal year.

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